Webinar #1: Fermentation & Probiotic Foods Essentials

Transcript of this episode

So I just wanted to inform you, if you guys have questions you can ask me anything. I’ll be doing some demonstrations, but in the end I would love for you to ask your questions about what I did and other questions that you might have, so there is a Q&A button.

If you go to the top of your page there should be some dots and dot icon beside a question mark or so and if you press on that you should find a Q&A, click on that and you are able to ask me questions and I will address them as I can and if you can’t have this feature or find a question later after the show, just email me at [email protected] and it should all be possible to talk with me then.

So I am going to share with you what I will talk about today, so we are going to talk more about the pro-biotic benefits that is always our topic at hand and we will be talking about do it yourself vegetable fermentation and why it is important to do your own with your own hands maybe better than buying it in the store, there is a lot of reasons and we will talk about some of those and we will be going through the vegetable ferment basics, so what kind of supplies you need from vegetables to vessels or salts and water.

Water is very important and I will be doing an demonstration with using vegetables that we are going to squeeze or I will squeeze with my hands to get brine, a natural liquid from the vegetables and ones that you can’t, so for example carrots or beans, these are vegetables that yeah you can squeeze them a lot with your hands, but there is not a lot of liquid that will come out of them and how we can go about creating a brine or liquids for those ones.

And I will be giving some tricks and tips maybe how you want to keep your vegetables more crunchy or some extra things you can add in there to make them extra tasty and things that I have experienced, such as using hops, so hops like the one you make for beer I sometimes add that in there. So I will talk about that then I will get to your questions and yeah, lovely for you to join me. Now, I am going to appear.

Entrance music, welcome it’s me. Live Alexis at the Edible Alchemy headquarters, so why pro-biotics?

We’ve talked about vegetable fermentation a little bit in other webinars, in my other webinar, my one other one, but today is going to be a bit more specific on the yeast on the skins of vegetables and how these come into play with fermentation in general.

So pro-biotics are basically good bacteria, we need these bacteria in our gut, in everyone our guts we have one to three pounds which about half a kilo to a kilo and a half of bacteria in our gut basically which can sound scary, but we have bacteria on our skin, it is flying around, it is used in the air and we have it in us, in our mouths we have a different bacteria than we do in our gut than we do on our skin and these are things, little creatures, little microbes that we have to get used to and actually become familiar with and we need them for our health, we need them to survive, so that’s one reason.

Another reason is that, fermenting food have these good bacteria’s actually enhances the nutrient availability in the vegetables, so basically if you have a very difficult vegetable to digest, such as kale- this is a hard leafy green.

After fermenting that kale leaf you can actually absorb a lot more of those nutrients maybe I have said this before, but a cow, how a cow has four stomachs, four chambers and too for the cow to digest grass which we as humans can’t, it goes through a fermentation process in each one of those stomachs, so it is breaking it down, breaking it down, breaking it down, fermenting during those processes and then the cow is able to absorb all of those nutrients in the grass.

We as humans, we are having all sorts of fermentation process within our digestive system, but it doesn’t go so long so in the end grass in not, unfortunately not very nutritious for us.

So by fermenting some vegetables, you are actually able to get a lot more nutrients out of them than you do when they are raw which is really cool especially if you are living in a place where you might have less nutrients in your diet or you need more nutrients, such as vitamin C, when you ferment vegetables the vitamin C that exists from that state is actually lengthened and the life line is extreme a lot longer than how it would be after you just cut it.

So basically after you take a vegetable, maybe you pick an apple off the tree, that vitamin C level is going to be dropping over time until it is compose and it doesn’t exist anymore, but when you are fermenting food, the vitamin C content is lengthened, also more nutrients are available, such as your vitamin Bs and niacin all of these things, so that’s great, that is a benefit and our bodies are more able to absorb these things not that the cell walls are broken down.​

​So let’s check here: More about vegetable fermentation (05:41). Sometimes when we are fermenting vegetables we are wondering like it is quite dry, there is nothing really happening here, how do you get water out of it, we are going to be pressing it and squeezing it to get the juices out.

Often cabbage is actually really heavy and it is because there is a lot of water in there and so if we squeeze them we can actually get that water out. Some questions people have often are about salts. Why do we use salt?

Can they use no salt? If you use no salt best to do it in the winter, because there is less bacteria kind of floating around in the air when it is really, really hot and the cold sorts of slows down that fermentation process and when you have salt it is a preservation, but we will talk more about salt in a little bit.

Let’s see, so vessels, let’s talk about equipment actually that is a really great point, so for equipment you basically need just a jar, I have a jar here.

I use glass often, plastic I use rarely, because often you need to have a food safe plastic and if it is not food safe, of course then it is not safe to making food, but if you have plastic sometimes it scratches or becoming an acidic environment that actually could be harmful to your health.

It could also change the flavor of your ferment, so I prefer glass, metal is a no-no, because often because it is becoming acidic environment your actually going to be corroding that metal and then again it is leeching into your vegetables which you are eating yourself.

So if you are using metal use stainless steel, that’s the best food safe, ferment safe vessel. Coresolin is great, ceramics are great, often the Germans have a ceramic vessel with a moat around it and basically water can sit in that moat and you can put your lid into that moat so all of the air can escape and no air can get in.

So basically it is creating its own vacuum, its own airlock, if you are really scared about mold and stuff like that, it’s best you get an airlock, it’s basically fastens onto the top of a jar or lid or it comes as a lid itself and again it’s the process it looks like the same thing you would use for wine, where bubbles can escape and the carbonation can get out, but no air can get in and so basically any foreign articles or particles that are floating around won’t get into your rout.

I guess I play at the more dangerous way often and don’t use any of these special airlocks and I just use the safety of a clean jar, you do not need to sanitize these things, such as when you are making wine or beer and really sanitize them, just really hot soapy water is important, actually just having a clean environment in general is important, we will be using our hands, we will be using the yeast in the air to create the specific ferment specific to where you are, bit you don’t t need to sanitize everything, cause we are going to be playing with these good bacteria that already exist.

So again we are living in this antibacterial world and we need to sort of become friends with it and to realize how important it is. Basically on the skin of every vegetable there are some natural yeasts that are present, so on this skin there is natural yeast and when I am going to be sort of tearing this apart, cutting it up and crushing it, the sugars that are inside their able to get at the yeast, so the yeast is able to get at the sugar is more or less, yeast eat sugar, so for another example.

The grapes you see in the store often have a little bit of whit chalky skin and we often think that, that is pesticides or they are dirty or they are old or they are dusty, but most of the time that is actually a yeast on the skin of the grape and after you pick the grapes, there is more yeast that sort of surround it, because they are coming and they are wanting that fruit in side that sugary part.

So if you crush grapes like the people who are stumping on the grapes now the yeast can get on the sugar inside the grape and that is how wine is produced, so just with the sour kraut with cabbage I can sort of get those sugars in the insides available to the yeast to eat them and water and liquid is the process to do that. So that is one thing we will be playing with and another thing you will need is basically is your bowl to crush all of your things, your vegetable you can ferment, everything, every vegetable that you can imagine.

I thought that I wouldn’t ferment potatoes, but I read yes you can; I thought that you wouldn’t ferment lettuce, but you can it is a shorter fermentation process, because the skins of the leaves of lettuce is very thin and so it could go mushy faster than like koraby would or faster than carrots would, but they are all possible. Everything is possible to ferment, which is the great part.

You will need salt, I have here really nice sea salt that is important, salt keeps your vegetables crispy, it also pulls the water out of the vegetables, it is a preservation technique in itself and give great taste, so it also extends the vitamins and nutrients that are in the vegetables, so people who are on lower salt diets, you can do no salt, but again like I said earlier I would recommend it in colder temperatures, maybe ferment your kraut in the fridge, maybe do it through winter or there is jus t more chance for bad bacteria to get in your kraut when there is no salt.

So I would be careful if you are doing no salt, maybe you use an airlock for this one and when I say be careful - it means there might be some molds that develops and the mold that develops is often a white yeast on top and it is totally benign it’s called cam yeast, it can be simply scraped off and you can salvage the vegetables underneath, but people who a skirmish again the airlock is a great tool to use.

So what else can you use? So I have here what I will be showing you some hops, this is basically like the flower you would use for beer. This is my extra tip that you can use, you don’t have to have it, but there is extra yeast on there that are nice to have.​

Some typical spices that people put in a sour kraut is like caraways seeds I have just the seeds, you can crush them if you want or you can leave them whole, I will be leaving mine whole and as the fermentation process happens, those seeds they become softer and you can digest them also, but also the flavor goes into the entire crouch.

I have some dill seeds also, fresh are best unfortunately the season is almost over and I have juniper berries, which are really great, this is a typical thing to have in a sour kraut and you can use crush pepper corn or you can use salary seeds, basically any spices that you think might taste good is going to really infuse into your sour crouch.

Sharper things like onions and garlic will also not have a strong of a taste after the fermentation process, but all of the vegetables will have you know, a hint of garlic, or a hint of onion which I actually really like. I like that extra sharp flavor in the entire kraut and then there are also pro-biotic, so and I will talk about after how you can keep them extra crunchy with tannins.

So tannins if you are thinking about what that might taste like, think about sucking on a black tea bag, that’s like pure tannin in there, so we don’t want to add too much tannin to our vegetables or to our kraut, but some is good to have. So let’s start cutting and I will show you what I am doing with one kraut first, so let’s show the camera here.

Alright, so I have this great cabbage, it was a massive cabbage so I only gave you a piece of it, I have some carrots, an apple, some leak and here I have some beans , so for things like, I am going to make two different sour kraut or two different kraut in general. The cabbage I am able to get water out of, so I am able to squeeze this to make my own brine - brine is like salty water.

Things like beans and this leek and these carrots, I won’t be able to squeeze them out and so I am going to make my own brine. So we can start with the cabbage and you can cut basically any size you would like.

For example I am going to cut it all of this size, if I have bigger chunks and little chunks then it is not going to ferment at the same rate, so it is important to keep your vegetables the same size, if I want to add carrots in here, then I would try and cut the carrots the same size everything is fermenting at its own rate and so I keep the density of a vegetable and the thinness or the thickness of it, try to keep it all the same, it depends.​

Once I made a carrot ferment and cut it into really I shaved it basically shredded it and I cut it into coins and put it all into one ferment, the unfortunate thing was, the shredded bits fermented really quickly, because there is a lot of service area and the coin bit didn’t fermented fast enough, so once the shredded bit were ready the coin ones weren’t and once the coin ones were fermented and ready, the shredded ones were mush and it didn’t taste right, so I encourage you to cut them all the right size surface area is important.

Now what I will do before I forget, Is I am going to take one of these bigger leaves from the cabbage and I am going to use this as the top, sort of like a cap for my ferment, so it is important to have something to weigh it down, we will talk about that.

To weigh your vegetables down underneath the water is very important, once your vegetables are on top of the water, if they are in the air, then it become compost okay, so good we start with this and then maybe, move this up, interactive, I hope you are all doing this at home right now with me alright, so I got this cabbage going.

This is going to be super basic kraut, I also want to add apple, cause it makes it sweeter let’s do some apples, so the magic of apples, yes it gives it sweetness, but also because of all that sugar in there, it is going to ferment quickly, sugar means the yeast are more active, so we have to watch it there will be lots of bubbles.

The first three days are the most important and all of these are clean, but I don’t need to take of the skin, the skin is actually where all the yeast are and all the goodies are and it gives it color also, better be careful I am on camera here.

Alright, now I will use my muscles and some salt, so approximately for let’s say one jar like a half liter jar or so you can add 1 – 2 table spoons of salt, I have some salt, sprinkle it in there.

As you see I am not perfectly measuring, but the best thing to do is taste it, I always encourage you to taste it, so hope you get to this point. This is really great when you are angry or have any aggression, it’s a really great way to get all of that out and you will notice that all of that cabbage is going to get smaller and wetter, because I am squeezing those juices out and the salt is also helping, so if you have a lot of patients then you can get a lot of juice out.

I want to get it to the point where I can show you that there is lot of moisture happening. It’s getting a lot smaller and when we put it in the jar we are going to really pound it down, because we want it to be covered with its own juice, if I don’t get it that juicy I will add water.

Now the important thing about water I will say it now and I will probably say it again and I will probably say it in every single webinar, is that dechlorinated water is really important, if you are living in a country where I am from in Canada, the water is really chlorinated and if it’s chlorinated then it is going to kill all of the good bacteria that exist, that is what its job is for and so if you let the water sit for 24 hours after you take it out of the tap, that’s a way to evaporate the chlorine or if you boil it then let it cool, again extreme heat like freshly boiled water on your sour kraut again will cook away the good bacteria.

So there I go – can you see this this - some drips. Yeah, that’s a good sign and you can keep going and that could probably get a lot of juice out of this, but for time sake. I actually want to all some hops, which are these little leaves that I was showing you earlier right there, so I will just sprinkling some on.

They kind of smell kind of yeasty beery, I really like the taste, they are dry so just just add a little sprinkle and I will add some caraway seeds again to taste, so just for fun, just for flavor and now this natural juice that I have made will naturally ferment my vegetables, it will in some days be bubbling and fermenting itself, however, if you want to give yourself a kick start and you have already have made vegetable fermentation before and you have some extra kraut, then you can add the juice of a previous sour kraut to this one and just a bit you know, maybe two, three table spoons and it will help inoculate this kraut.

It will give it like a 100% kick start and say hey, we already have so yeast and probiotics present, go for it here is ome fresh vegetables, some fresh sugar for you to eat, alright, cool, so unfortunately I estimate wrong and I don’t have a full jar, but what I can do is that, it is best to have a full jar to have minimal air, you can see that I already have like juice covering my hand, that’s good, that a good sign, so with my cap that I had saved, this is going to be the sacrificial leaf and I will put it down.

It will sort of cover the vegetables there, so if this one gets brown, then it is at least protecting the vegetables that were brown underneath and I would also like to cover it with about some inches of water, this is dechlorinated water and I just cover it some inches, so looks good, could have been a bit more colorful if I added some extra things.​

​The salt content is good, I tasted it, its up to my liking, now as I said, you can add some extra juices, this is a previous sour crout that I have and I have been eating all of the vegetables, but have all of this great juice left and you can inoculate so many things with it, so I really like the taste of this one before, so I will just add some of that to this one, let’s show you.

now that will give it a nice kick start and what I can do now is close it, clean of the vegetables, any vegetables, any of these little side bits that are poking out that will compost, because it is oxidize by the air around it, so just clean it up try to get them all down and I can close it and in some days, tomorrow and the next day and the next day, the three first days are important.

It will be bubbling and probably whistling and might run over which often happens to me, so put a plate underneath that is the best way to catch all of the jucies and to make sure that, if you do a red beat ferment, t hat you don’t have red beat juice running all over your table, that was my mistake, so I am going to quickly show you if I don’t have some juicy vegetables that I have these beans here and I will just cut off the ends.

I will just prepare them, because when I eat a kraut I don’t want to have to prepare again my food. I just want to grab them out of the jar and eat them, so I will just cut off these little ends and these ones won’t get any jucies out of them, but if I squeeze them I will get a little bit, but it is just a hassle, so I am going to make a brine basically.

And remember you can ask me questions, you can start asking them now and when it is actually question time I will get back to you. It is that think at the top of your page that has a question mark beside it and then beside it there is some little dots and you can do the Q&A and start asking me and I will address you when the time comes.

Alright, now I have these beans that’s great, let’s do some carrots, why don’t I do, I am trying to think if I do corns or sticks, sticks can be nice, because it will all fit into the jar properly whatever give them relatively the same kind of thickness as the bean is, if you think about it, so carrots and dill bean, what do you think? Sounds like it could be nice.

​Every ferment ends up begin different again, because of the environment you are in, there is different yeasts in the air, there is different yeasts on your vegetables, on your hands and so no matter what, when you try to replicate the same ferment, it will always taste different and for me that is the magic of fermentation.

Alright, and I have a jar somewhere, here we go, so I have this jar, I actually have it with water in it, pour a little bit out, don’t need that much now and I am going to make a salt solution, so for this little jar maybe about 20 spoon or so and I am going to give it a little swizzle and it is warm water, so the salt should dissolve, it should dissolve all of it, but I will do it for time sake see, so I am basically just making a salt solution, because I can’t get all of the water out of these vegetables, so that will eventually all go out.

These are big beans, maybe I can break them or cut them in half, let’s cut them for time sake and it is really great, you can totally pack your vegetables as full as you can, that is the goal, you don’t need any space, you want as many vegetables you know, it is harvest time we all harvested all those vegetables and you want to make sure you can have them during the winter, that is also the great benefit of food preservation.

This is a technique our forefathers used so that they could eat all these great nutrients in the wiinter and more nutrients are present after fermenting, you’re breaking down the cell walls and your digestive system is really able to get at those nutrients from the vegetables; some people make pictures in their jars, I don’t know if I am not patient or artistic that way, but I would want to do that, but also kind of fun and in this one, I am going to instead of again letting it natural ferment, because I am sure lots of you have done that you can do that, I will show you another pointer.

So what I have here is whey, basically I make my own yougurt or my own milk if you are at home and when the curds and the whey and the milk separate, the milk is seperating into curds in the whey. I take that way off now that whey is probiotic and it is a really great whey, its protein and it is a great starter for ferments. Sally Fallon in her book Nourishing Traditions, uses whey in almost every recipe to start a ferment, to make ketchup, to make sourkrauts, to make soda pops.

It is full of protein and it is also probiotic, so all you need and it is a little bit salty also naturally, so just give it a coupe of table spoons there alright, so I have the salt, I have the vegetables pack to the top, preferably underneath, even what I can do here is add a cabbage leaf, a sacrificial leaf, if you don’t have a leaf or if you don’t want to use a leaf, you could use a clean stone, you could use a smaller jar to push the vegetables down; you could use ceramic weights as it’s really important to have the vegetables under that water and if they’re not, again they will be compost.

​So there we have two ferments – you can add the salty water brine at the top of the vegetables or you can do like I did and add it at the bottom and now that the salts are at the bottom, maybe you want to give it a shake - something like that.

You can leave them out of the fridge for up to three days, four days, five days – it’s up to you. It will be bubbling for the first three days, it’s really up to you maybe it will go slower if the temeparatue in your apartment is cooler; it will go faster if the temeperature is warmer. I’ve left a ferment out for longer than two months and then I put it in the frdige.

It’s gonna be bubbly but I encourage you to open it up, maybe you have to push the veegatables down because of the natural carbonation pushing out but push it back down and try them – try them everyday and when you like the taste put them in the fridge and the taste will contnue to change.

Again the fridge is not a fermenetation stooper – it’s a fermentation slowing devise like (31:26) calls it and that’s very true. Sommetimes I don’t like a ferment and I put it in the very back of the fridge and two months after I can come back to it and be like wow what a flavour. Maybe it’s really spicy at first and maybe two months later it’s not as sharp – Ihave made fermented mustard – it was great after three months.

So, That is that part.So, for tannins to make the vegetables cruchy – for some of you if you must have pickles at this time of the year – summer just ended and there are lots of pickles present it feel like. The trick is if you want to keep them crunchy because they’re so watery inside, it’s esy for them to break down and become mush – you need tannins.

So I said black tea bags – you can use black tea leaves about 1 or 2 teaspoons or half a teaspoons actually to a ferment; those tannins will be realeased and they will keep the vegetables crunchy; you could also use grape leaves – about 3 grapes leaves for one gallon or a litre of pickles.

You could use oak leaves so green oak leaves might be present in your neighbourhood or not; you could also use horse radish leaves if that is present in your kitchen or you could use cambucha – many of you maybe familiar with cambucha and you’re making it with the original black tea recipe.

I have tried it in some ferments as a starter just like I used the whey as a starter; I have also made the ginger glass webinar, you could experiment and use that ginger as a starter – 1 or 2 tablespoons of that and yeah, you can use cambucha as a starter if you like. Yeah, so there’s lots to be addressed about vegetable fermentation in general and this is just the basics here but I ‘d love for you to ask some questions and I’ll address them so shoot your questions out and I’ll answer them as soon as you go.

And I have lots more hidden information in my head so – here’s one – I’m a little bit blind so my face comes into the computer – do smaller peieces of vegetable ferment faster than bigger chunks and if so what would you guestimate to be the difference?

So basically, if I have this bean and I put it full into my ferment sort of like I did now, it will take longer because now the yeasts and the bacteria are taking a long time to get into it to inoculate it; if you want to do samller pieces – half, quarters amaybe even smaller than that – it could be much faster, so there’s a lot more service area, there are a lot more sugars available and so it could speed up.

If you like a certai taste when it’s like this say maybe this would take a week and this would take half a week or so; it will half the time – the smaller vegetables you have. Some places in Korea, they take a full cabbage and put the spices on the cabbage and hrow it in a giant vat of other cabbages and sices and then next year the (34:49) is ready, whereas for me I want (34:53) in a month or less so I’m cutting my cabbage a lot smaller and there’s a lot of layers that you have to get through so it depends on how big the chunks you want or not.Anymore questions? How do I dechlorinated the water?

Like I said to dechlorinate the wter you can either let the water sit for 24hours on the counter or you can boil it but remember if you boil it you have to let it cool and how do you know if it’s cool enough? For, eamaple, if this was boiled water at one point the safest test is where you (35:33) just like the microbes in your bacteria and so I would put my finger in it and if you hold it for 10 seconds and it’s not burning you then it’s safe enough to use for your ferment, to use for your cambucha or whatever.

That’s the safe test or you can be a bit more strict about and use a thermometer or you could just use natural spring water and just be safe that there is no chlorine in it.

Okay, hi I see you don’t peel the carrots. So The carrots I actually peeled them before but you don’t have to actually; I don’t often peel my carrots, I usually clean them really well and leave the skins on depends on the kind of taste; again they’re very muddy if you get them straight out of the garde, your kraut will taste a bit goundy, a bit earthy and that’s maybe a taste that you want but if you want them really clean – then you can scub them or you can peel them.

I pre-peeled mine – Im a big advocate of food saving and so I had some carrots that had some black bits and of course I don’t want the colour nor the taste in kraut and so I peeled it off and you can use al ot of the vegetables in your frdige that have wrinkles or they are starting to go bad; it’s a great time to use them for fermentation because the cell walls are starting to breakdown and there’s a lot of yeast present so use them.

Again, if there’s mouldy bits like on my apple I had a bruised bit that got punctured in my bag, I’m not gonna use that – just for the taste but you can use vegeatables that are going bad.Thanks for loving my webinar.​

Let’s try another one – are there certain veggies that don’t mix well and do all ferment at the same speed? Veggies don’t ferment all at the same speed is a good question because vegetables with more sugar will ferment faster, for example red beet; if you want to do red beet in a vegetable ferment I had done one recently and something similar to the one we did today but because there ar so many sugar in a beet you eat it raw and it’s sweet.

I cut them into big chunks and that red beet turned my entire white kraut pink – like a fuchsia – it was very beautiful and it was helping the ferment process with those sugars so when you’re doing beets, I don’t shred it often because there’s too many surface areas present which means too much sugar which means - explosive.

Very sweet vegeatables will lead to mor of a foaming on top – don’t worry about it that’s totally normal, that’s just part of the fermentation process. In things like cabbage sometimes there is foam but for really sweet vegetables you will get a foam coming on top and you just kinda soop it away and if you need to add a little more water and again press the vegetables and for veggies that mix or not thats totally up to your taste.

I’m trying to carrot and coraby goes good together; I’m thinking of all these great combinations that go together. I’m trying to think of one that doesn’t go together .....the jar , apple can go in there also and a lot of people add other fruits – mangoes – to their ferments; you can make chutneys, you can make kind of a sweet and savoury – just experiment and I totally encourage you. Always lt me know your results, that’s the fun part - fermenting things and sharing your results or maybe your own secret recipes and findings.​

Here I have another question: can you add additional flovoring after the main fermentation has taken place? Could I add honey to relish to make it a little bit more sweet or ground cayenne pepper to make it a little bit more spicy.

Yeah, like I have – one time I had a ferment that didnt have enough salt, so that’s a bit hard to add more salt but it’s definitely possible to – so what you can do, for example you have all of this brine liquid in there you can this off.

If you taste it after a couple days and you say “hmm, its not salty enough” pour that brine off and make a new one with this salt that I have and water – make it a very salty solution and pour it over the top. Now it’s also going to be a diffrent ferment than if you had done that in the beginning because its fermenting at a diffrent rate again but it will still help to give your vegetables some ore salt and you can add other flavors to it - again its gonna be different than when you started it at the beginning but it’s possible.

There are some processes that they do this anyways, they add salt so experiment and maybe you find that you like adding hot chili peppers near the end to give it a little more flavorrather than if you add them at the beginning then your ferment won’t be as spicy at the end – it sort of takes down that spice.​

What else do we have here? Yeah, you can definitely add these things to different products like I have my sour kraut juice that I added and you can really add that to many things. The technical term when you put this juice into another sour kraut is called back slopping – not the nicest sounding word but that’s the technical term.

​Let’s see if we have another – is it possible to ferment salad greens? Yeah, it is possible – I would do the crunchiest parts so thiings like lettuce you can do, you can do collard green, you can do kale. The very thin leafy ones are possible – you could do radish leaves, you could do beet leaves, coraby leaves – they are really nice to be fermented because they’re better able to get those nutrients and breakdown those walls but very thin leafy vegetables, actually I would say maybe 20 or 3 days fermenting and then you can start consuming or you can put them in the fridge to keep them crunchybecause they will get soft quickly – so thinner vegetables, faster fermenting.

​Let’s see: what can I add to my kraut to make it really special, besides the ingredients already mentioned. So, let’s see – there are lots of things that you could add to your kraut so I said that you could try this – you could also try to do a Kombuchato krout – this is my whey. I have Kombucha, some people have used a Kombucha SCOBY – this is a Kombucha with SCOBYes in there and you could actually put a SCOBYe on your krout and it will have a vinegary fermented taste. Then you will just have to separate your SCOBYe from your vegetables which can be a hassleand it justs it a different taste. That’s something really invenetive and fun – instead of doing a kraut you could do a vegetable Kombucha.

​Next we’re gonna be talking about Kombucha and how to make some really fun inventions with that; so stick around amd stay tuned. Please fell free to ask questions, I’ll give you a couple more minutes and I can check out what else I can ask you or what else I can tell you.

​So ask me some questions, this is a live webinar so it’s all up to you guys at this point. Something that really influences your sour kraut would be like the temperature, the surface area of your vegetables – things like that. I’ll give you a couple more minutes and if you like this webinar and you wanna see more sign up and next week we’ll have about Kombucha - there will be more webinars in the in the future, sign up for the emails, go to ediblealchemy.co – everything’s coming out new and exciting so please feel free to check it out.

​So that lookslike that’s it for the vegetable fermentation workshop and please – if you have anymore questions later or if you think about them and you’re trying your kraut and you have some complications or some problems or some strange yeast starts growing let me know about that. Take a picture, send it to me if you’re scared and I’ll be sure to answer any questions you may have about that.

​There’s also a Facebook group that you can join – it is very new; it’s called Edible Alhemy Group, so just join Edible Alchemy. I’m on there to answer your questions there, we can have discussions, with other people about your ferments, your first times, your second times, your millionth times ferments and we can have more information in our group there. So check that out; thanks for joining me and I hope to see you again. This is the second webinar and I hope to see you there for the third.

​Ciao.